Teaching is often thought of as something that comes rather naturally to people who know their subject. In general, it is thought that it is a simple process that produces simple outcomes.1 But teaching is an intriguing, important and complex process.2 It takes place in a complicated social institution, which is filled with diverse people. It is a fluid interplay of events. One can just know the subject and teach it, because the subjects themselves are ever changing. It is true that teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including sets of values and beliefs which in turn color their view of reality.3 The teacher must learn to control five processes of teaching; firstly, making and using knowledge, secondly, shaping the school, thirdly, teaching with strategy, fourthly, creating interpersonal climates and fifth and lastly controlling a teaching personality.4 Bruner also emphasized four major features of theory of instruction in effective teaching (i) predisposition toward learning, (ii) structured body of knowledge, (iii) sequences of material to be learnt, and (iv) the nature and pacing of reward and punishment.5 It means that a theory of instruction in teaching is concerned with how what one wishes to teach can best learnt, with improving rather than describing learning.
Research on Teaching
Research on teaching styles demonstrate vigorous changes during the past decade. As with any developing field all stages of the movement are visible simultaneously, but there appears to be a clearly discernible pattern to the development.
Phase I Validation of Theoretically Derived Teaching Construct
In the first phase during the 1960s and early 1970s, a flurry of studies attempted the validation of theoretically derived teaching construct, usually dichotomous variables that carried on implicit, if not explicit, value preference. Several instrumentation break through (Medley and Mitzel 1958,6 Flanders 1960) allowed the dominative versus integrative construct of Anderson (1939)7 and the teacher centered versus learner centered notion of Withall (1949)8 to be examined in classrooms. The research for the most effective teaching style was pursued with much excitement during this period.
Phase II Specific Behaviour of Pupils
The next phase focused on specific behaviours that are related to learning outcomes of pupils rather than on global teaching styles. This phase continues actively today as specific teacher variables are tested in various settings to determine the utility.
Phase III Research-Based Teaching Pattern
A third critical, bur rather rudimentary, phase has just begun to emerge from the research base. The development of research derived teaching patterns or styles has started to occur, at least for children of a particular age in particular settings. Only a few patterns have been identified, but the ones that have emerged are firmly rooted in empirical research rather than derived from theory. Within this phase, there is an attempt to develop generic patterns or styles that have broad utility as well as the possibility of synthesizing specific patterns effective for particular Children in specific settings.
The research on teacher effectiveness has been …